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  1. Herzog W. (2010) The Biomechanics of Spinal Manipulation. Journal of Bodyworks and Movement Therapies. 14:280-286.
  2. Michaleff A.Z., Lin C.-W.C.,Maher C.G., van Tulder M.W. (2012) Spinal Manipulation Epidemiology: Systematic Review of Cost Effectiveness Studies. Journal of Electromyography and Kinesiology. 22:655-662.
  3. Haavik H., Murphy B. (2012) The role of spinal manipulation in addressing disordered sensorimotor integration and altered motor control. Journal of Electromyography and Kinesiology. 22:768-77.
  4. Carragee E.J, van der Velde, et al., Carroll L.J. et al., (2009) Treatment Of Neck Pain: Noninvasive Interventions. Results of the Bone and Joint Decade 2000–2010 Task Force on Neck Pain and Its Associated Disorders. Journal of Manipulative and Physiological Therapeutics. 32:S141-S175.
  5. Carnes D., Thomas S, Mars T.S., Mullinger B., Froud R, Underwood M. (2010) Adverse events and manual therapy: A systematic review. 
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  6. Miley M.L., Wellik K.E., Wingerchuk D.M., Demaerschalk B.M. (2008) Does Cervical Manipulative Therapy Cause Vertebral Artery Dissection and Stroke? The Neurologist. 14:1, 66-73.
  7. Cassidy J.D., Boyle E., Côté P., He Y., Hogg-Johnson S., Silver F.L., Bondy S.L.(2008) Risk of Vertebrobasilar Stroke and Chiropractic Care. Results of a Population-Based Case-Control and Case-Crossover Study. Spine. 33:4S. S176-S183.
  8. Kerry R., Taylor A.J., Mitchell J., McCarthy C., Brew, J. (2008) Manual Therapy and Cervical Arterial Dysfunction, Directions for the Future: A Clinical Perspective. The Journal of Manual & Manipulative Therapy. 16:1. 39-48.
  9. Rushton A, Rivett D, Carlesso L, Flynn T, Hing W, Kerry R. (2012) International Framework for Examination of the Cervical Region for potential of Cervical Arterial Dysfunction prior to Orthopaedic Manual Therapy Intervention. International Federation of Orthopaedic Manipulative Physical Therapists. Documentation available at
  10. Leaver A.M., Maher, C.G., Herbert, R.D., Latimer, J. McAuley, J.H., Jull, G., Refshauge, K.M. (2010) A Randomized Controlled Trial Comparing Manipulation With Mobilization for Recent Onset Neck Pain. Archives Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation. 91:1313-8.

Provided by the Musculoskeletal Association of Chartered Physiotherapists (MACP)

The Musculoskeletal Association of Chartered Physiotherapists (MACP) is a group of over 1,100 physiotherapists, who are members of the Chartered Society of Physiotherapy, UK. In addition to their undergraduate training they have all undertaken extensive postgraduate study and reached a recognised standard of excellence in musculoskeletal physiotherapy. To obtain membership of the MACP clinicians have to complete a recognised postgraduate course of study, many of which are at a Master of Science level. MACP members will have ‘MMACP’ after their name.For further information:,,

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